1. a. more nitrogen, and since it’s a gas  its concentration also increases

; less hydrogen, water(since you are removing it)  and NO


b.  more SO2; less SO3


c.  a greater mass of PH3 and H2; less P4. Note however that the  concentrations of PH3 and P4 (both solids) remain the same. If they were gases, the volume would remain fixed so if the moles decrease the concentration also decreases. But for solids(or liquids) the moles and volumes shrink proportionally, so the concentrations do not change. The same would apply if the mass increased.


d. more FeO and CO and CO2; less Fe. But note that even though the mass of  Fe decreases, its actual concentration is unchanged. This would apply to all liquids and solids.(they remain pure) The concentration can only change  for an ions or gas.

2.  Remove the iron as it forms.

g) + 2 NO(g) = N2(g) + 2 H2O (g)

3. a.  No. The forward reaction is favoured, but this will create more product.

= Fe(s) + CO2(g)

b. No. Pressure will not favor either reaction. There is only one gaseous molecule on each side.

raise or lower the pressure? Explain.

4. Raising the pressure will make it more difficult for the water to boil. The temperature will move past 100 C.


5.  At first the colour gets darker only because you are squeezing the coloured molecules closer together, not because any reaction is taking place. But eventually with more pressure you are favouring the reverse reaction(which involves two gaseous molecules vs. only one for the forward reaction), so the brown colour fades as you make more and more colourless N2O4.

 0.5 O2 = SO3 + 93 kJ ?

6. a. The amount of SO3 will decrease because more heat encourages the reverse reaction, which consumes SO3.  b.  The reaction shifts to the left, meaning that you will see more N2O4 as it will not react as much without the necessary heat (endothermic).


c. Brown colour will fade.

 O2(g) = 2 NO2(g) DH = -117 kJ

d. Lower the temperature to discourage the reverse reaction.

7. a. The humidity would be high which would favour the reverse reaction.

    1. cycle the pink substance?)

b.  Heat the pink substance to recycle or regenerate the blue substance.

8    a. Blue and red = purple

  1. Equilibrium in the first reaction will be shifted to the left as H+1 gets neutralized so you will see a blue colour. Cook the stuff and you’ll see we’re not making up this stuff!
  2. Vinegar is acidic, so you will see a reddish colour.
  3. First green and then yellow, eventually.
  4. Gradually acidify the solution.