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The Elements of the Periodic Table: Fact Sheet

 

#

Element

Symbol

Etymology

Original Method of Preparation

Present Source

Practical Use

Env/ health

Misc

1

hydrogen

H

hydro + genes <Gk = water creator

zinc + acid

decomposition of water

water gas = fuel; manufacture of ammonia; hydrogenation of oils, moderator in nuclear reactors in D2O form

more environmentally friendly fuel

most abundant element in universe

2

helium

He

helios< Gk = sun

unusual line in solar spectrum

distillation of natural gas

He-Ne laser used to read labels; balloons

 

1895 Ramsay discovered He in U sample

3

lithium

Li

lithos < Gk = stone

investigation of mineral found in Sweden

LiCO3 + HClLiCl;electrolysis

LiCO3 used to treat bipolar disorder; LiOH + fat;Li soap used for lubricant greases;Li-6 used with deuteride as source of tritium(external fission heat then causes fusion)

 

highest heat capacity; twice that of water

4

beryllium

Be

beryl = mineral

reduction of its chloride with potassium.

electrolysis of BeCl2

Be + alpha;neutrons; window for x-ray tubes

compounds:toxic=

beryllosis

emerald and aquamarine both contain beryllium

5

boron

B

borax

heating boron oxide (B2O3) with potassium metal

borax

neutron absorber;used in transistors+solar cells as forms electron-defic.holes in doped Si; pyrex;boric acid

 

 

6

carbon

C

carbo <L = coal

 

free state as graphite,coal,diamond

fuel; activated charcoal; dry ice: caffeine extractor, long distance refrigeration

CO2 = global warming

Surface area/mass of activated charcoal =1000m2/g

7

nitrogen

N

nitrum <L = nitre(KNO3)

leftover from combustion

distillation of air

used to make ammonia; NH3 + O2 (Pt); HNO3; used in PET scans; Na3N used in air bags

NOx source of acid rain and photochemical smog

apples held in N atm at low temp store for 3 years

8

oxygen

O

oxys + genes <Gk = acid creator

HgO + heat;effect on candle

distillation of air

medicine-respiration; scuba tanks; fuel in industry and aerospace;NaClO3+Fe+spark->O2 above plane seats

O3= uv filter in stratosphere but pollutant at ground level

Lavoisier recognized it as an element.;

9

fluorine

F

fluere <L = to flow

electrolysis of anhydrous HF with KHF dissolved

fluorspar:Moisson method

through diffusion rates of UF6 allows U-isotope to be separated; cavity prevention; teflon;pet scans;BF3 neutron detectors

fluoridated carbons attack ozone

 

10

neon

Ne

neos< Gk = new

distillation of liquid air

distillation of liquid air

neon lights

 

[Ne]=0.10[CO2]

11

sodium

Na

soda <L = old headache remedy

electrolysis of molten NaCl

electrolysis of molten NaCl

moderator in sub reactors;saponification;Na2CO3 used in glass ( with CaO and sand);highway lights(no scattering of fog);

 

high heat capacity

12

magnesium

Mg

Magnesia <NL = ancient city

electrolysis of molten MgO

CaO +seawater
Mg(OH)2 +CaCl2

Alloys (i.e. ladder = Mg + Al); epsom salts; antacid; fireworks and flares;

makes water hard;interferes with detergents

can't put out Mg fire with CO2 : 2Mg+CO2=2MgO+C

13

aluminum

Al

alumen <L= alum

by reducing AlCl3 with potassium amalgam

electrolysis of purified alumina (Al2O3)bauxite

conductor in high transmission lines; beverage containers; doors, gates, windows; foils

resistance of cans makes recycling necessary

corundum (Al2O3) one of hardest minerals

14

silicon

Si

silex <L = flint

reducing oxide with coke?

reducing oxide with coke

glass; transistors; silicones(silly putt, superballs, plastic surgery)

 

 

15

phosphorus

P

phosphorus<Gk = light bearer

boiled down urine=flammable

calcium phosphate + C +SiO2

production of H3PO4 (fertilizer)

phosphates cause eutrophication

white P reacts in air ang glows(chemiluminescence)

16

sulfur

S

soufre <L =sulfur

 

underground deposits, Frasch process

food preservation (SO2);H2SO4(world's most common man made chemical);

SO2 leads to acid rain

volcanoes account for 2/3 of SO2 in air

17

chlorine

Cl

chloros<Gk = greenish yellow

electrolysis of molten NaCl

electrolysis of molten NaCl

bleach; polymers(PVC);production of HCl

kills ozone; chlorinated hydrocarbons cause cancer

used in WW1 as poison gas

18

argon

Ar

argos<Gk = lazy

density discrepancy NH3 derived-N vs air-derived N

distillation of liquid air

fills bulbs; K-40 dating K-40; Ar-40 +electron

 

 

19

potassium

K

potash= early source of K

electrolysis of molten KCl

electrolysis of molten KCl

gunpowder(KNO3); KOH (soap, batteries); dating for billion yrs+)

K-40 major source of lifetime radiation

KO2 reacts with CO2

20

calcium

Ca

calx <L = lime

electrolyzing CaO &HgO &distilling amalgam

CaO +Al

mortar(ohydroxide +sand+water);cement(carbonate +sand +clay);plaster(CaSO4.2H2O);deliquescent CaCl2

 

in limelight deriv: CaO + heat= intense blue light

21

scandium

Sc

scandium = scandinavia

electrolysis of molten ScCl2

electrolysis of molten ScCl2

aircraft construction(high mp, non corros. lightwt);lamps in stadiums(natural color);Sc-46 used as tracer in petroleum refining

 

exist, predicted by Mendeleev prior to discovery

22

titanium

Ti

Titan = Greek mythology

by reducing TiCl4 with Na

by reducing TiCl4 with Mg

manufacture of aircraft engines; bicycles; titanium pins in medicine; oxide= white pigment

 

 

23

vanadium

V

Vanadis = Scandinavian goddess

hydrogen reduction of VCl2

vanadinite mineral,smelt,roastreduce

additive in steel industry;V2O5 catalyst for sulfuric acid prod(SO3 step from SO2)

 

occurs naturally in over 60 minerals

24

chromium

Cr

chromo = colour

carbon reduction of crocoite

chromite,electrolysis

stainless steel(18%Cr); Cr2O3=green pigment; recording tapes(makes filings less corrosive)

 

 

25

manganese

Mn

magnes <L = magnet (pyrolusite)

 

pyrolusite,`electrolysis

strengthens steel for impact(power shovels + rifles);MnO2 used in batteries;

organisms can extract Mn from sea bottom: nodules

 

26

iron

Fe

ferrum <L = iron = old english

 

ores of iron: hematite and magnetite

steel(tools, vehicles,building supports)

 

Fe= limit for fusion in main sequence stars

27

cobalt

Co

Kobold <Ger = evil knome

 

roasting of cobaltite to remove As, S

alnico (ind magnets Al Ni Co); stellite ( hard alloy for high speed drills: W + Cu + Co); Co-60 (radiotherapy)

prevents pernicious anemia

 

28

nickel

Ni

Nickel <Ger = Satan

 

roasting of millerite to remove S

stainless steel (18% Cr ,8%Ni);magnets; monel for power shafts of boats(Cu +Ni); nichrome (heating elements)

toxic in high conc.to mold, bacteria

cops < buttons on policemen were made out of Cu

29

copper

Cu

cuprum <L = Cyprus(Roman source of Cu)

native Cu

native Cu, Cu2S

wire; plumbing; too soft for tools; roofing(patina is a green colored hydrate of Cu(CO3)2

 

 

30

zinc

Zn

zink <Gk

 

zincblende=ZnS;roast

galvanized steel(oxide prevents further attack);sacrificial anode(if galv steel scratched, Fe still protected); mintage;batteries; ZnS in monitors;sunscreen;ointments

 

 

31

gallium

Ga

Gallia <L = Gaul

 

impurity in bauxite

electronic displays(GaAs=laser diode converts electricity into laser;semiconductors;Ga-67 radiotherapy;neutrino detectors (ga +neutr;Ge-71 (charact rad)

 

expands when freezes; Mendeleev predicted

32

germanium

Ge

Germania <L = Germany

 

refining of oxide

doped Germanium used to make computer chips

 

Mendeleev predicted

33

arsenic

As

arsenucum <L =orpiment

 

roasting and reduction of orpiment

insecticide; GaAs=laser diodes;

recent advances : made it detectable in autopsies

lethal dose in adults 0.1 g

34

selenium

Se

selene <Gk = moon(alloptrope =blue gray)

 

byproduct of Cu refining

photoconductor(grey Se in meters + lt switch dev);photocopying plates; dandruff shampoos;

role in vit E activity;large amts: toxic

small amounts protect against cancer

35

bromine

Br

bromos<Gk = stench

Cl-water + sea water from marshes

Cl2 + bromide from brine wells Ark

gasoline additive(ethylene bromide); AgBr (bw film);CH3Br(insecticide);NaBr (sedative);

ethylene bromide=potent carcinogen

high density: cannot be transferred with dropper

36

krypton

Kr

kryptos<Gk = hidden

fractional distillation of air

fractional distillation of air

airport runway lights(pale violet);Kr+Xe used in strobe lights;

 

KrF4 prepared after Pauling predictions(quantum )

37

rubidium

Rb

rubidus <L = deep red(spectral lines)

from spectrum

byproduct of Li, Cs refining

scavenger for gases in creating vacuums

 

mp 39 just above body temperature

38

strontium

Sr

Strontium = Scottish village

 

ore +HCl followed by electrolysis

warning flares + fireworks(red emission);Sr-87 used in bone scans

Sr-90 radioactive byproduct in fallout;milk

 

39

yttrium

Y

Ytterby = Sweedish village

 

 

phosphor in colour tv tubes;Y-Al-O2:solid state lasers used in cutting metals;superconductor at 93K (Y,Cu,BaO:1:2:3);

 

abundant on moon

40

zirconium

Zr

zargun <Arabic = gold colour

 

zircomnium ores

space vehicle parts(ZrO protects rest of metal);diamond substitute(zircon);U-containers (zircaloy)

 

 

41

niobium

Nb

Niobe=mythological goddess

 

columbite

steel alloy(resistant 1000+,used in high speed cutting tools,advanced aircraft,nuclear reactors)

 

difficult to separate from tantalum

42

molybdenum

Mo

molybdenite ore

 

molybdenite (MoS2)

moly-steel (withstands high temp, pressure=car, plane parts, cannons);

source of Tc-99(Mb-99->Tc-99 +beta)

 

 

43

technetium

Tc

technetos<Gk = artificial

 

Mb+H-2

injected in veins to reveal organ function;also binds to rbc

trace amts have been found in stars

enough has been made to reveal Tc=silvery metal

44

ruthenium

Ru

ruthenia <L = Russia

 

byproduct of Pt refining

catalyst for dissociation of water with sunlight;added to Ti to prevent corrosion;jewelry(mixed with Pt);pen points;

 

 

45

rhodium

Rh

rhodon<Gk = roe rose color of salts

 

byproduct of Pt refining

headlight reflectors;hardening of Pt;catalytic converters

along with Pd,Pt breaks down NO2 and CO;CO2

 

46

palladium

Pd

pallas = asteroid

 

byproduct of Pt, Cu refining

purifies H2(absorbs 99X its vol and impurities get trapped);chemotherapy

chemo with few side effects;catalytic converter

 

47

silver

Ag

argentum<L = silver

free state;Cu-Ni ores as AgS

free state;Cu-Ni ores as AgS

high quality wiring;jewelry with Cu;reflective coating (mirrors);photographic film,paper;tooth fillings;sunglasses(2Ag+ + light->2Ag + Cu+2;rain clouds(AgI)

 

best conductor of heat,elect;sterling =93%Ag, 7%Cu

48

cadmium

Cd

calamine

calamine

CdS roasting; byproduct of Zn refining

electroplates steel(better than Zn in alk env);rechargeable batteries;absorbs neutrons in rods;Wood's metal(12.5%Cd,seals sprinklers:mp 70)

smokers inhale Cd because tobacco concentrates it

 

49

indium

In

indicum<L = indigo

zinc ores

byproduct of Zn refining

lowers mp of alloys;Ag-In: better heat conductor than Ag;transistors,photo cells

 

gives shrieking sound when beat rapidly

50

tin

Sn

Tinia=Etruscan god;stannum <l = tin

 

reduction of cassiterite(SnO) with C

alloying agent;bronze(Cu + Sn);solder(33%Sn, 67% Pb); SnCl4+ SnO2 used to make ceramic glazes

 

<13C, white->brittle: Russian buttons in 1850 war

51

antimony

Sb

antimonium <L

 

stibnite(SbS3)

safety matches(SbS3 +KClO3+P); added to PVC as flame retardant;waste water pipes

 

 

52

tellurium

Te

tellus <L = earth

 

 

stainless steel

 

one of few elements that reacts with gold

53

iodine

I

iodes< Gk = violet colored

kelp +H2SO4

purple color

sodium iodate

(ashes of kelp)

antiseptic;disinfects water (iodate);salt supplement(iodide);phto film;I-131 diagnosis of thyroid diseases

needed for synthesis of thyroxine growth hormone

 

54

xenon

Xe

xenos< Gk = strange one

fractional distillation of air

fractional distillation of air

phot flash tubes(brilliant white light);strobes to capture fast moving objects;

 

forms many compounds with F2

55

cesium

Cs

coesius<L = sky blue

bright blue emission line

pollucite

scuba(superoxides+H2O+CO2O2);

 

 

56

barium

Ba

barys <Gk = heavy

electrolysis

witherite,baryte

xrays of digestive system(BaSO4);scavenger metal in creating vacuums;fireworks(green);white pigment(BaSO4)

BaCl2 is toxic to cardiovascular system

 

57

lanthanum

La

lanthanein< Gk = to lie hidden

impurity in cerium nitrate

monazite sands(i.e.Florida); bastnasite

searchlights; motion picture projectors; alkaline resistant glass;

moderately toxic

 

58

cerium

Ce

Ceres = asteroid

impurity in bastnasite

monazite sands(i.e.Florida); basnasite

arc lamps;walls of self-cleaning ovens;polish lens of telescopes and cameras(oxide)

 

 

59

praseodymium

Pr

prasios + didymos<Gk=green(oxide) twin

from didymium

monazite sands(i.e.Florida); basnasite

electrode of C arc lamps;non-corrosive alloy(Mg+Pr); colors glass and enamel yellow

 

 

60

neodymium

Nd

neos + didymos<Gk= new twin

 

monazite sands(i.e.Florida); basnasite

powerful magnets(Nd+Fe+B);glass additive(rose-colored);steel alloys;counterfeit detector(picks up magnetic material in ink)

 

 

61

promethium

Pm

Prometheus = Greek god

nuclear reactors

nuclear reactors

Pm-147+portable x-ray machine

 

found in Andromeda's spectrum

62

samarium

Sm

Samarski=Russian army officer

absorption lines in samerskite

monazite sands(i.e.Florida); basnasite

permanent magnets(difficult to demagnetize);absorbs ir very well(glass)

 

 

63

europium

Eu

Europe

 

monazite,reducing it to the +2 oxidation state and precipitating it with sulfate ions

 

 

 

64

gadolinium

Gd

John Gadolin

 

monazite sands(i.e.Florida); basnasite

alloys(steel); control rods;phosphors(compounds)

 

loses magnetism at only 17 C

65

terbium

Tb

Ytterby

from yttrium

monazite sands(ion exchange)

phosphors;magnetic alloys used in CD's;green colour in monitors

 

 

66

dysprosium

Dy

dysprositos <Gk=hard to get at

 

monazite sands(i.e.Florida); basnasite

alloys make CD function better;some isotopes absorb neutrons effectively

 

denser than lead

67

holmium

Ho

Holmia <L=Stockholm

 

monazite sands(ion exchange)

oxide used to colour glass

 

 

68

erbium

Er

Ytterby

 

xenotime,euxerite

vanadium alloys;pink colour of oxides(sunglasses,glass,jewelry)

 

 

69

thulium

Tm

Thule = Scandinavia

isolated oxide from erbia mineral

monazite sands(ion exchange)

used in lasers

 

expensive, rare

70

ytterbium

Yb

Ytterby

 

monazite sands(ion exchange)

improves strength of stainless steel;dentistry

 

 

71

lutetium

Lu

Lutetia <L = Paris

impurity in ytterbium

monazite sands(ion exchange)

no commercial applications yet

 

very expensive

72

hafnium

Hf

Hafnia <L = Copenhagen

x-ray analysis of zircon

chlorination of zircon, then reduction with Na

control rods(absorbs neutrons)

 

resistant to corrosion

73

tantalum

Ta

Tantalus = Greek mythology,dissolving oxide in acid was tantalizing

 

columbite,extraction and reduction

hip joints, plates;replacing stainless steel in chemical industry;cell phones; capacitors;

 

carbide of Ta may be hardest material

74

tungsten

W

tung stem <Swe = heavy stone

by charcoal reduction of the oxide (WO3)

wolframite and scheelite

common light bulb;rocket motors;cathode ray tubes;tungsten steel

 

highest mp, bp(3420,5900)

75

rhenium

Re

rhenus <L = rhine

indium, platinum ores

molybdenite and CuS

electrodes;thermocouples

 

 

76

osmium

Os

osme <Gk = small

residue of Pt ores in aqua regia

Ni,Pt ores

hard alloys with Pt, In(needles, pen tips); stain of microscope slide

oxide causes skin and lung damage

 

77

iridium

Ir

iris <L =colour (salts are highly colored)

residue of Pt ores in aqua regia

Ni,Pt ores

hypodermic needles;rocket engines(resistant to corrosion);

 

 

78

platinum

Pt

platina <Sp = silver

pure nuggets

pure; mixed with Ir, Os, Ru, Rh

catalytic converters;jewelry;catalyst in rocket engines,ozone ; O2, nitric acid production,distillation of oil, hydrogenation

compounds used to treat testicular /ovarian tumors

 

79

gold

Au

aurum <L = shining dawn

pure nuggets

pure nuggets

coating for space vehicles(reflects ir, non-corrosive);jewelry;

isotope used to treat cancer

10000 Au leaves=1 mm thick

80

mercury

Hg

Mercury = planet; hydragyrum <L = liquid silver

cinnabar

cinnabar

dental amalgams;thermostats;fungicide

toxic, binds to enzymes,accumulates in food chain

 

81

thallium

Tl

thallos <Gk = green shoot(spectrum)

from green spectral line

Pb, Zn refining

photoelectric cell

toxic and carcinogenic

conductivity changes when exposed to Ir

82

lead

Pb

lead <OE

 

galena(PbS), roasted and reuced with C

battery electrodes;solder on circuitry boards;x-ray screen

toxic :binds to enzymes->brain,liver damage

 

83

bismuth

Bi

weisse masse <Ger = white mass

 

bismite

Wood's metal;cosmetics pigment(BiO2);antacid(nitrate)

 

 

84

polonium

Po

Poland

decay of U

decay of U, Th

Po-210 neutron source

100000million times more toxic than cyanide

 

85

astatine

At

astatos <Gk = unstable

decay of U, Th

decay of U, Th

 

probably taken up by thyroid

 

86

radon

Rn

<radium +on

decay of U

decay of U

inferior radiotherapy;

builds up in non-ventilated basements(cancer)

accumulates in tobacco

87

francium

Fr

France

decay of U

decay of U

 

 

 

88

radium

Ra

radius <L

extra spectral line in Ba<--U

decay of U

source of Rn (chemotherapy)

 

 

89

actinium

Ac

aktinos <Gk = ray

 

 

 

 

all isotopes are radioactive

90

thorium

Th

Thor = god of war

 

monazite sand

alloying agent for Mg;portable lamps

weakly radioactive

1/2 life 14 X10^9

91

protactinium

Pa

protos + actinium< Gk = actinium derived

 

from Ac

 

extremely toxic

 

92

uranium

U

Uranus = planet

monazite sands;pitchblende

 

fission; dating rocks(U-238/Pb-206)

 

 

93

plutonium

Pu

Pluto = planet

bombarding U with 2H

breeder reactors

weapons;lunar modules(Pu-238 only releases alpha)

extremely toxic

 

94

neptunium

Np

Neptune = planet

byproduct of Pu generation

byproduct of Pu generation

Np-237 most important

 

trace quantities exist in U ores

95

americium

Am

America

bombarding Pu with neutrons

nuclear reactors

smoke detectors(alpha ionizes air; smoke cuts current)

 

 

96

curium

Cm

Pierre& Marie Curie

bombarding Pu with alpha

nuclear reactors

242,244 sources of energy in remote areas, buoys; space missions;

 

 

97

berkelium

Bk

U of Cal at Berkeley

241Am+alpha

Am-241 +alpha

 

too scarce

 

98

californium

Cf

California

Bk + neutron

 

source of neutrons in analysis of oil-bearing layers, mining of Au,Ag

 

 

99

einsteinium

As

Albert Einstein

analysis of H-bomb debris

 

highly radioactive

 

 

100

fermium

Fm

Enrico Fermi

analysis of H-bomb debris

 

 

 

 

101

mendeleev

Md

Dmitri Mendeleev

Es-253 + alpha

Es-253 + alpha

 

 

 

102

nobelium

No

Alfred Nobel

Cm-244 + C-12 ions

 

 

 

 

103

lawrencium

Lr

Ernest Lawrence

Cf + B-10,B-11

 

 

 

 



References

The Elements (Oxford Chemistry Guides) by John Emsley Released: 01 July, 1998

The Periodic Kingdom by Peter Atkins, 1995 BasicBooks a division of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-465-07265-8

Natures Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements by John Emsley Released: 01 August, 2003


 

 

Born: April, 1996